Page 2 - Kansas Journal of Medicine, Volume 10 Issue 2, May 2017
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KANSAS JOURNAL of M E D I C I N E                                      	 Once thought to disappear with maturation, longitudinal
                                                                         studies have shown ADHD symptoms generally manifest them-
       The Relationship of Personality Style and                         selves in early childhood, prior to age 12, and can be present in
      Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in                        some form throughout adulthood.6-8 Depending on informant
                                                                         and diagnostic cutoff points, anywhere from 5 to 75% of adults
                              Children                                   diagnosed as children show significant levels of impairment
                                                                         into adulthood.9 Some have suggested a relationship between
             Stephen P. Amos, Ph.D., Gretchen J. Homan, M.D.,            disorders of neurocognitive and/or executive function (e.g.,
           Natalie Sollo, M.D., Carolyn R. Ahlers-Schmidt, Ph.D.,        ADHD) and subsequent psychopathology (e.g., personality dis-
                                                                         orders) in adulthood.6,10 However, others have argued the con-
                Matthew Engel, MPH, Patrice Rawlins, APRN                structs associated with ADHD may be adaptive and represent
              University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita,           a positive adjustment to a disorganized and chaotic world.11,12
                                                                         	 Core symptoms of ADHD may shift in adulthood.13 Behav-
                              Department of Pediatrics                   iors such as difficulty maintaining attention and frequent run-
                                                                         ning around shift to affective lability, lack of anger management
     ABSTRACT                                                            skills, emotional over-reactivity, and disorganization. However,
     Introduction. This study was to identify personality correlates of  coupled with this are concomitant spontaneity, creativity, and
     children with a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disor-   responsiveness. Many of the traits associated with creative in-
     der (ADHD). The Jungian Personality Type dimensions primar-         dividuals overlap substantially with behavioral descriptions
     ily considered were Sensing/Intuiting and Perceiving/Judging.       of ADHD, including higher levels of spontaneous idea genera-
     A Sensing child is likely to be very present-centered. A Perceiv-   tion, mind wandering, daydreaming, sensation seeking, energy,
     ing child tends to be curious and resist order and structure.       and impulsivity.14 In addition, persons with diagnosed ADHD
                                                                         may be more likely to convert the exhaustive effects of the dis-
     Methods. Children attending a general pediatric clinic with a di-   order into exceptional qualities. Barkley15 noted that children
     agnosis of ADHD were eligible to participate. Enrolled children     with ADHD actually are able to concentrate intently; this is
     were administered the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for           especially true when the endeavor interests them or provides
     Children. Binomial tests were performed comparing Perceiving        immediate reinforcement and feedback. Those with an ADHD
     and Sensing personality components to accepted population rates.    diagnosis activate higher levels of creative thought and achieve-
                                                                         ment than people without the diagnosis.16,17 This leads to ques-
     Results. Participants (n = 117) were predominantly male             tions concerning what factors contribute to success of those with
     (78%) with a median age of 10 years. The Sensing trait (72%)        ADHD and whether they might be functions of personality.
     was more prevalent than expected, though prevalence for the         	 The key constructs of ADHD often appear to be transient.
     Perceiving trait (44%) did not differ from population rates.        Hyperactivity often declines by adolescence but problems
                                                                         with attention remain.18 Impulsivity may transform from act-
     Conclusions. Personality types occasioned with the diag-            ing without thinking into executive function issues including
     nosis of ADHD could be useful in establishing/normal-               problems in self-reflection, planning, and creating a future
     izing treatment regimens and approaches to assist these             orientation that anticipates outcomes. However, this also may
     children and their families better. KS J Med 2017;10(2):26-29.      give way to fearless negotiation of life circumstances that some-
                                                                         times leads to surprisingly creative solutions.19 Adults with
     INTRODUCTION                                                        ADHD also reported occasional bursts of activity leading to
     	 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condi-       adaptability, learning to overcome difficulties, and a moder-
     tion characterized by high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity      ate risk-taking agenda that allows them to disregard obstacles
     and inattention that affects up to 10% of school-age children.1     that prevent others from even exploring new possibilities.17,20
     ADHD is associated with chronic functional impairment and in-       	 Many studies have looked at ADHD through the lens of
     creased risk for later psychopathology.2,3 The specific disorder,   pathognomonic indicators, such as the Millon Clinical Multi-
     as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental       axial Indicator or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inven-
     Disorders (DSM-V), includes operational criteria targeting both     tory II.21,22 ADHD often is associated with depression, anxiety,
     behaviors and deficits in abilities including inattention and com-  and lower self-esteem as expressions of increased difficulties at
     munication/impulsivity.4 A search of the literature focused on the  home and in the educational setting.3,8,22,23 Fewer studies have
     relationship of personality characteristics/traits and ADHD re-     sought to identify the positive aspects of ADHD as capable of
     vealed a preponderance of research identifying negative aspects     influencing adaptive functioning in certain situations and as a
     associated with the diagnosis, including increased risk of injury,  precursor to success rather than a pathway to failure. For ex-
     reduced educational achievement, and economic impact.5,6 There      ample, adults with ADHD are nearly four times as likely to
     was a paucity of research aimed at identifying positive aspects     be entrepreneurs as their counterparts without the disorder.18
     of the diagnosis or ways in which ADHD symptomatology com-
     bines favorably with life’s demands. In addition, most research
     of ADHD and personality focused on adults and not children.

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