Page 3 - Kansas Journal of Medicine, Volume 10 Issue 2, May 2017
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KANSAS JOURNAL of M E D I C I N E                                    children with ADHD would be more likely to express the Sens-
                                                                     ing and Perceiving dimensions on the MMTIC. The Extraver-
PERSONALITY STYLE IN ADHD CHILDREN                                   sion/Introversion or Thinking/Feeling dimensions were not
continued.                                                           expected to differ from established population frequencies.

	 In response to increasing interest in understanding individ-       METHODS
ual personality differences, Carl Jung’s theory of psychologi-       	 Patients between grade levels 2 and 12 presenting to the
cal type has been used to develop tools to identify personal-        practicing psychologist at a general pediatrics clinic in Wich-
ity indicators.24 The essence of the theory is that perceived        ita, KS, who previously were diagnosed with ADHD (all
random variation in human behavior is orderly and consis-            types), were asked to participate in this study. Recruitment
tent, being due to certain basic differences in the way people       occurred between May 2011 and March 2015. For this study,
prefer to use their perception and judgment.25 The Myers-            ADHD was defined as confirmed diagnosis by a pediatrician
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was the first tool developed to         and required additional documentation utilizing the Con-
investigate Jung’s ideas and measures preferences of the four        ner’s Behavior Rating Forms, both Parent and Teacher.27,28
polar dimensions: Extraversion/Introversion, Sensing/Intuit-         	 Age, grade level, and gender were collected for all enrolled
ing, Thinking/Feeling, and Judging/Perceiving. According to          participants. Each participant was asked to complete the
type theory, all eight of these preferences are used by each of      MMTIC. The 43-item assessment tool has documented reliabil-
us but they are not preferred equally. The Murphy-Meisgeier          ity between .69 and .78 for each of the four scales (Extraversion/
Type Indicator (MMTIC) was developed in an attempt to ex-            Introversion, Sensing/Intuiting, Thinking/Feeling and Judging/
pand such investigation into the lives of children. The MMTIC        Perceiving).26 Children completed the instrument using a com-
reflects normal and adaptive development without any reflec-         puterized assessment (Center for Applications of Psychological
tion of pathology.26 As each individual grows and develops,          Type, Inc; www.capt.org). Basic frequencies were calculated for
predisposed preferences emerge regarding how that person             each of the four dimensions as well as the combinations of all
will operate and transact in the world. To date there has been       four dimensions. Observed frequencies of individual types were
little research looking into the relationship between individ-       compared to expected values taken from the MMTIC Manual.26
ual personality type in populations of children with ADHD.           	 Given the small sample size and skewed distribution of age
	 The current version of MMTIC has been constructed care-            and grade level, non-parametric tests were used. Age and gen-
fully and the combined reliability and validity statistics demon-    der of respondents for each dimension were compared using
strate it is appropriate for and accurately assesses preferences     Mann-Whitney U and Fisher’s exact tests, respectively. Fre-
for grades 2 thru 12.26 One particular value of the MMTIC is that    quencies of MMTIC preferences were compared to expected
it demonstrates clear expectancies of type for the general popu-     values using binomial test of proportion. Analyses were per-
lation. For example, approximately 54% of children would be          formed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Version 20.0). Significance was
Judging in their orientation to the world and approximately 46%      defined as p < 0.05. T-test and chi-squared tests were two-
would be Perceiving. Judging children tend to be planful, orga-      tailed. The binomial test of proportion is a one-tailed test.
nized, orderly, and systematic, whereas Perceiving children tend     This project was approved by the institutional review board
to be creative, curious, open, flexible, and adaptive, but some-     at the Wichita Medical Research and Education Foundation.
what scattered in terms of organization. Likewise, expectancies
for Sensing and Intuiting would be 57% and 43%, respectively.        RESULTS
Sensing children archetypally are present-centered observers         	 All children with a verified diagnosis of ADHD seen by
who like to do things now, one step at a time, paying attention to   the psychologist were enrolled (n = 117). Children were
details with little regard for the future. Alternatively, Intuiting  mostly male (78%), with a median age of 10 (interquartile
children tend to look to the future seeking patterns and relation-   range [IQR] 8 - 12), and were in the 4th grade (IQR 3 - 6).
ships with a focus on the big picture but often missing details.     The most common 4-type personality indicator was ISFJ (Ta-
	 The primary research goal was to determine the extent to           ble 1). Table 2 describes the percent of each personality type
which an ADHD diagnosis is associated with certain person-           who were male and the median age for each type. Age and
ality preferences. This research explored the possibility that       gender were significantly associated with trait preferences
ADHD carries a predisposition to experience the world in cer-        across dimensions (age unassociated with Feeling/Think-
tain ways that may complicate the delivery of treatment ser-         ing dimension, p = 0.074, all others unassociated, p > 0.2).
vices and the way in which children with ADHD actually use           	 When compared to expected averages taken from the
treatment services. Given the aforementioned descriptions of         MMTIC manual, children in our sample were more likely
these personality types, we proposed that Sensing/Perceiving         to exhibit the Sensing preference (72%) than would have
children would not be a natural fit for some educational set-        been expected (57%; p = 0.001). No differences were de-
tings. In addition, their individual preferences may predispose      tected in the expression of the Perceiving preference (44%)
them to be identified as having ADHD. We hypothesized that           as compared to the expected 46% (p = 0.334). Differenc-
                                                                     es were detected in both the proportion expressing the

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