Page 4 - Kansas Journal of Medicine, Volume 10 Issue 3
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KANSAS JOURNAL of M E D I C I N E                                              ing to other specialties (Table 3). Twenty-two percent of all stu-
                                                                               dents spent less than $1,000. However, 35% of primary care
STUDENT EXPENSES IN RESIDENCY TRAINING                                         applicants reported costs less than $1,000, compared to only
continued.                                                                     11% of those applying to other specialties (p < .001; Table 4).

Table 2. Significant ANOVAs by MANOVA variable.                                Table 3. Estimated average total interviewing expenses ($) by
                                                                               campus and primary care application.
MANOVA Significant ANOVA

              Campus                    Primary Care                                         Main        Regional  All Students p value
                                        Application                                         Campus      Campuses

              Main         Regional     Yes           No                       Estimated    3,652       3,342      3,516                0.461
              (N = 94)     (N = 69)     (N = 78)      ( N = 85)
                                                                               average costs (20 - 11,000) (75 - 12,000) (20 - 12,000)

Application Activity                                                           (range)

Applications                            26 ± 15.07 48.8 ± 23.83                Primary care 2,827       2,701      2,765                0.822

                                        (n = 76)      (n = 83)                 applicants   (20 - 7,000) (75 - 12,000) (20 - 12,000)

Interview     18.35 ± 9.8  13.62 ±                                             (range)
offers        (n = 93)     8.36
                           (n = 66)                                            Non-primary  4,305       4,087      4,219                0.713
                                                                               care         (100 -      (300 -
                                                                               applicants   11,000)     10,000)    (100 - 11,000)
                                                                               (range)
Completed 12.17 ± 4.59 9.58 ± 4.0       9.89 ± 4.06 12.19 ± 4.68

interviews (n = 93)        (n = 66)     (n = 76)      (n = 83)

Financial Costs ($)                                                            Table 4. Estimated total interviewing expenses.

Total spent                             2825 ± 2422 4254.51 ±                  Amount Spent Primary Care Non-Primary Care       p value
interviewing                                                                                                                    <.001
                                        (n = 69)      2446.59                  $≤1,000      26 (35%)    9 (11%)                 <.001
                                                                                                                                <.001
                                                      (n = 72)                 $1,001 - 5,000 39 (53%)  51 (65%)                0.06

Number                                  1.6 ± .66     1.9 ± .72                $5,001 - 10,000 7 (10%)  18 (23%)
of funding                              (n = 69)      (n = 72)
sources
                                                                               >$10,000     2 (3%)      1 (1%)

Any travel                              1.26 ± .44    1.1 ± .31                	 A MANOVA conducted to determine the effect of gender,
paid                                    (n = 69)      (n = 72)                 campus location, and primary application on the five depen-
                                                                               dent variables related to financial cost of interviewing (i.e., to-
Any lodging                             1.95 ± .21    1.7 ± .46                tal estimated expenses, the number of funding sources used,
paid                                    (n = 69)      (n = 72)                 and any contribution from residency programs to travel, lodg-
                                                                               ing, and meal expenses) found no significant difference for gen-
Interview Time and Scheduling                                                  der (Wilks’s Λ = .98, F(5,129) = .57, p = .72, η2 = .02) or campus
                                                                               (Wilks’s Λ = .98, F(5,129) = .48, p = .82, η2 = .02), but a significant
Days          28.17 ±      19.21 ±                                             difference between primary care and non-primary care applica-
                           8.25                                                tion (Wilks’s Λ = .79, F(5,129) = 6.83, p < .001, η2 = .21; Table 2).
interviewing 16.23         (n = 48)                                            	 An ANOVA on the dependent variables found a significant dif-
                                                                               ference in total estimated expenses between primary care and
              (n = 69)                                                         non-primary care applicants (F(1,133) = 11.9, p = .001, η2 = .08).
                                                                               Students reported using the same funding sources (principally
Interview     1.6 ± 0.49   1.81 ± 0.39                                         student loans, credit cards, gifts from family members), but non-
offer         (n = 69)     (n = 48)                                            primary care applicants reported using significantly more funding
response                                                                       sources (F(1,133) = 3.9, p = .05, η2 = .03). Students reported a wide
<10 mins.                                                                      range of program financial contributions. Ninety-two percent re-
                                                                               ported any assistance with payment for meals and 84% reported
        The ANOVA by campus type found no significant difference               any contribution to lodging. Only 18% reported any assistance
     on total number of applications submitted (F(1,151) = 2.78 , p =          with travel. Primary care applicants were significantly more likely
     .09, η2 = .02), cost as a limiting factor (F(1,151) = .86, p = .35, η2 =  to report any contributions to travel expenses (F(1,133) = 4.1, p =
     .01), or time as a limiting factor in deciding to interview (F(1,151)     .05, η2 = .03) and lodging (F(1,133) = 14.8, p < .001, η2 = .1), but
     = 1.9, p = .17, η2 = .01). Students from the main campus were in-         no significant difference was demonstrated for meals (F(1,133) =
     vited to significantly more interviews (F(1,151) = 10.6, p = .001, η2     1.8, p = .16, η2 = .01). For each category, the expenses covered by
     = .06), and completed more interviews (F(1,151) = 12.9, p < .001,         individual programs ranged from zero to all expenses (Table 2).
     η2 = .08). The ANOVA found no significant difference for pri-             	 Interview time and scheduling. Students report-
     mary care application in cost as a limiting factor (F(1,151) = .52,       ed an average of 26 days spent interviewing (range 1 - 90).
     p = .47, η2 = .003) or time as a limiting factor in deciding to inter-
     view (F(1,151) = .06, p = .80, η2 < .001). Non-primary care appli-
     cants applied to significantly more programs (F(1,151) = 47.7, p <
     .001, η2 = .24), and completed more interviews (F(1,151) = 9.2, p
     = .003, η2 = .06), but were not offered more interviews than pri-
     mary-care applicants (F(1,151) = 3.5, p = .06, η2 = .02; Table 2).

        Financial costs of interviewing. The average reported cost
     for interviewing was $3,500 (range $20 - $12,000; Tables 3
     and 4). On all campuses, applicants to primary care reported
     an average of about $1,400 less than their classmates apply-

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