Page 4 - Kansas Journal of Medicine, Volume 10 Issue 4
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KANSAS JOURNAL of  MEDI CIN E                             safety courses or materials. In Kansas, safety promotion at the point
                                                               of sale or track level could be improved to increase public awareness
     KANSAS ATV SAFETY PROMOTION                               of ATV safety practices.
     continued.
                                                               REFERENCES
     owners, may serve to increase awareness of protective safety prac-  1 xWarda L, Klassen TP, Buchan N, Zierler A. All-terrain vehicle ownership,
     tices, such as consistent use of helmets.  Healthcare providers who   use, and self reported safety behaviours in rural children. Inj Prev 1998,
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     treat patients using all-terrain vehicles should be aware of the scarcity   2 xGoldcamp EM, Myers J, Hendricks K, Layne L, Helmkamp J. Nonfatal all-
     of safety promotion and also consider rider safety education.  terrain vehicle-related injuries to youths living on farms in the United States.
                                                                 J Rural Health 2001; 22(4): 308-313. PMID: 17010027.
                                                                  xLarson AN, McIntosh AL. The epidemiology of injury in ATV and moto-
     Table 3. Track respondents’ self-reported safety promotion   3 cross sports. Med Sport Sci 2012; 58:158-172.  PMID: 22824845.
      Personal protection                       n = 5*           4 xShannon SF, Hernandez NM, Sems SA, Larson AN, Milbrandt TA.  Pedi-
         Require head protection               5 (100)           atric orthopaedic trauma and associated injuries of snowmobile, ATV, and
                                                                 dirtbike accidents: A 19-year experience at a level 1 pediatric trauma center.
               DOT or snell certified           3 (60)           J Pediatr Orthop 2016 July 20. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 27442216.
                                                                  xStrohecker KA, Gaffney CJ, Graham J, Irgit K, Smith WR, Bowen TR.
         Require body protection                                 5 Pediatric all-terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries: An epidemic of cost and grief.
                Ankle boots                     0 (0)            Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2017. pii:S1017-995X(16)30403-5.
                Chest protectors                0 (0)            PMID: 28705513.
                                                                  xGaray M, Hess J, Armstrong D, Hennrikus W. Pediatric ATV injuries in
                                                                 6
                Goggles                         2 (40)           a statewide sample: 2004 to 2014. Pediatrics 2017;140(2). pii: e20170945.
                Closed toe shoes                2 (40)           PMID: 28771414.
                                                                  xBowman SM, Aitken ME, Helmkamp JC, Maham SA, Graham CJ. Impact
                                                                 7
      Provide safety education                                   of helmets on injuries to riders of all-terrain vehicles. Inj Prev 2009; 15(1):3-
         Safety courses                         2 (40)           7. PMID: 19190268.
                                                                  xHelmkamp JC, Aitken ME, Graham J, Campbell CR. State-specific ATV-
                                                                 8
         Safety information                     3 (60)           related fatality rates: An update in the new millennium. Public Health Rep
      Enforce track safety rules                                 2012; 127(4):364-374. PMID: 22753979.
                                                                  xThepyasuwan N, Wan XT, Davis VJ. All-terrain vehicle injuries at Arrow-
                                                                 9
         Age limits                             2 (40)           head Regional Medical Center (Level II): Epidemiology, risks, and outcome.
         Allow multiple riders                  2 (40)           Am Surg 2009; 75(10):1004-1008. PMID: 19886154.
                                                                  xBenham EC, Ross SW, Mavilia M, Fischer PE, Christmas AB, Sing RF.
                                                                 10
         Monitor size of rider to ATV           1 (20)           Injuries from all-terrain vehicles: An opportunity for injury prevention.  Am
         Limitations on engine cc               3 (60)           J Surg 2017; 214(2):211-216. PMID: 27914583.
                                                                  xButts CC, Rostas JW, Lee YL, et al.  Larger ATV engine size correlates
                                                                 11
         Provide medical personnel during races  3 (60)          with an increased rate of traumatic brain injury.  Injury 2015; 46(4):625-628.
     *Frequency (percentage) reported.                           PMID: 25527458.
                                                                  xWilliams AF, Oesch SL, McCartt AT, Teoh ER, Sims LB. On-road all-
                                                                 12
        Study Limitations. The results of this descriptive study may be   terrain vehicle (ATV) fatalities in the United States. J Safety Res 2014;
                                                                 50:117-123. PMID: 25142368.
     limited by selection bias (Google™ search compiled list), response   13 xKeenan HT, Bratton SL. All-terrain vehicle legislation for children: A
     bias (ATV dealers and track owners in Kansas, predominantly rural   comparison of a state with and a state without a helmet law. Pediatrics 2004;
                                                                 113(4):e330-334. PMID: 15060263.
     state), and variability among dealers who sell ATVs and may not gen-  14 xNational Conference of State Legislatures. All-terrain vehicle (ATV)
     eralize to other dealers and track practices. Further, generalizability   safety laws by state. 2014. http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/
     is limited by low response rates from both dealers (32%) and tracks   all-terrain-vehicle-safety-laws-by-state.aspx. Accessed July 26, 2016.
                                                                  xKansas Highway Patrol. http://www.kansashighwaypatrol.org/document-
                                                                 15
     (31%), however, this is the first research to assess safety promotion   center/view/165. Accessed July 26, 2016.
     practices at the dealer and track level.                    16 xDMV.org. Traffic safety laws in Kansas. http://www.dmv.org/ks-kansas/
                                                                 safety-laws.php. Accessed August 23, 2017.
        Future Research. Future research should delve deeper into safety   17 xJennissen CA, Sweat S, Wetjen K, Hoogerwerf  P, Denning GM. Engaging
     promotion practices at the state and national levels. The evaluation   agribusinesses: Feasibility and cost of an ATV safety poster project. J Agro-
     of ATV safety programs would be valuable to determine the types of   medicine 2017; 22(4):364-375. PMID: 28742465.
                                                                  xPercy EC, Duffey JP. All-terrain-vehicle injuries. A sport out of control.
                                                                 18
     programs that are successful in preventing ATV related injuries and   West J Med 1989; 150(3):296-299. PMID: 2735035.
     mortality. A quality analysis of ATV safety materials (manufacturer,   Keywords: all-terrain vehicles, safety, prevention
     house-developed, and public health promotion) may be of value to
     determine consumer usability.

     CONCLUSION
        All-terrain vehicle dealers are recommended to promote ATV
     safety, but typically such promotion is limited to the sales of safety
     gear (helmets and gloves) or the provision of manufacturer provided
     safety materials. Further, ATV dealers report rarely offering skills
     tests or safety courses to buyers. Regarding ATV tracks, helmet pro-
     tection is standard, however, ATV riding practices (age of rider, size
     of ATV) usually are not monitored. Moreover, only about half offered

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